Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) studies and research reports of energy efficiency programs and technologies by Verified® Inc.
Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Report for the 2015 Energy Efficiency Programs
This report provides the Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) findings for the 2015 Liberty Utilities LLC Energy Efficiency Programs. This study was conducted by Verified® Inc. with public benefits funds under the auspices of the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). Liberty Utilities and TriSage Consulting implemented the following programs in 2015: energy education, residential energy audits, small commercial energy audits, Energy Star® lighting, refrigerator/freezer recycling, commercial incentives, and public school incentives.
Laboratory and Field Tests of an Efficient Fan Controller® in Cooling and Heating Mode on Residential HVAC Systems
Laboratory and field tests of a residential heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) Efficient Fan Controller® (EFC®) were performed at a third-party ISO-certified test laboratory used by manufacturers and USDOE to test HVAC equipment for compliance with minimum Federal efficiency standards. The patented EFC® technology saves cooling or heating energy by extending fan operation after the thermostat call for cooling or heating has ended based on the duration of the thermostat call for cooling or heating. The variable cooling fan-off delay is based on the air conditioning compressor operating time which determines how much water vapor is condensed on the evaporator to provide evaporative cooling after the thermostat call for cooling has ended. The variable heating fan-off delay is based on the heating system operating time which determines how much heat is stored in the heat exchanger to provide additional heating after the thermostat call for heating has ended. For gas furnaces, the EFC® energizes the thermostat G terminal after a brief delay to increase fan speed and airflow to satisfy the thermostat sooner and save energy. Cooling energy savings vary from 3.9 to 38.3% with average savings of 15.2 ± 0.8% based on 46 laboratory tests and normalized cooling savings of 19.9% based on 22 field tests. Gas furnace heating energy savings vary from 4 to 21% with average savings of 15.9 ± 0.7% based on 24 laboratory tests and savings of 13.5% based on 10 field tests. Heat pump heating energy savings vary from 2 to 29% with average savings of 12.5 ± 1% based on 48 laboratory tests. Hydronic heating energy savings vary from 4 to 31% with average savings of 16.3 ± 1.7% based on 20 laboratory tests. The EFC® potential annual energy savings are 0.11 quadrillion Btu (quads) or 0.12 exajoules (EJ) in California or 4.65% of the total estimated annual energy use in California of 2.4 quads or 2.53 EJ.
Laboratory Measurements and Diagnostics of Residential HVAC Installation and Maintenance Faults
Laboratory measurements of residential HVAC installation and maintenance faults are provided for a 13-SEER split-system air conditioner. Test conditions differ from those used to rate cooling systems to emulate typical installations in California. Equipment was set up in three chambers to model indoor, outdoor, and hot-attic conditions. Tests were conducted using TXV and non-TXV metering devices. Results are provided for low airflow, coil blockage, refrigerant over/under charge, duct leakage, ducts/equipment in hot-attic conditions, improper TXV sensing-bulb installation, non-condensables, and restrictions. Baseline tests using the “code tester” instead of forced-air unit (FAU) are only 3% less than the 13 SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) with ducts, evaporator, and FAU located in conditioned space. The SEER* is 8% less with FAU in conditioned space. With ducts, evaporator, and FAU in hot-attic conditions, the Energy Efficiency Ratio* (EER*) is 11% less and SEER* is 23% less. Moderate to severe non-condensables reduce efficiency by 12 to 38% and increase power by 8 to 22%. Refrigerant restrictions reduce efficiency by 30 to 59%. Multiple faults including low airflow, undercharge, duct leakage, and condenser-coil blockage reduce EER* by 54% and SEER* by 67%. While laboratory tests of RCA faults indicate generic protocols can yield false alarms, misdetection or misdiagnosis, they were 100% accurate evaluating refrigerant charge faults when no other faults were present and 74% to 89% accurate overall. It took 45 minutes to test for 1% non-condensables where condenser temperature is at least 2C above 35C outdoor temperature. If significant refrigerant-system faults are detected manufacturers recommend recovering charge, making corrections, evacuating to 66.6 Pa, and weighing in factory charge.
Energy Efficiency Performance Metrics for Industrial Food
5th International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Motor Driven Systems (EEMODS'07) to discuss latest developments in the impacts of electrical motor systems on energy and the environment June 10-13, 2007 Beijing, China
Industrial customers can be motivated to adopt comprehensive energy efficiency improvements by developing energy efficiency performance metrics as a function of production. This paper provides energy efficiency performance metrics and evaluation results for two of the largest industrial fruit and tomato processing facilities in California. The fruit facility processes 35,220 tonnes of apricots and peaches annually and the tomato facility processes 476,272 tonnes of tomatoes annually. Each facility implemented comprehensive energy efficiency projects including installation of energy efficient motors, equipment, lighting, and controls. The International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocols and Six Sigma strategies were used to develop energy efficiency performance metrics as a function of production based on historical utility billing data and engineering analyses. The performance metrics were used to evaluate energy and peak demand savings. The measured savings for each site range from 20 to 50 percent of the baseline kWh and kW usage. The ex post evaluation savings for the fruit processing facility are 838,477 ± 121,370 kWh/yr and 907 ± 41 kW with realization rates of 1.16 for kW savings and 0.69 for kWh savings. The ex post evaluation savings for the tomato processing facility are 2,377,768 ± 328,490 kWh/yr and 1,592 ± 220 kW with a realization rate of 1.47 ± 0.2 for the kW savings. These industrial customers indicated a willingness to continue monitoring the energy efficiency performance metrics of their industrial processes to maintain, control, and improve energy and peak demand savings from motor systems, equipment, and controls.